User Tools

Site Tools


  • Deutsch (German)
  • English
  • Français (French)
  • Italiano
wind_energy_more

What can I choose in the calculator?

The calculator lets you choose the share of Wind energy in the total electricity generation capacity in Switzerland in the selected year (2035 or 2050).

Wind Energy

image

Contents

  • Impact
  • Global market
  • Definition
  • Constraints
  • Assumptions
  • Value range
  • References

IMPACT – What are the impacts of Wind energy?

In Switzerland, increasing the share of Wind energy in the total electricity generation capacity will have the following impacts:

Energy system

image Increase the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix.

image Increase pressure on the grid by increasing non-dispatchable electricity generation.

image Likely to increase energy independence and energy security by reducing fossil imports.

Environment & Climate

image Reduce global CO2 emissions.

image Minimal impact from end-of-life components, which can mainly be recycled.

image Visual intrusion is significant if placed on ridges and hilltops where wind resources are strongest. If placed too close to habitations there is potential noise disturbances.

image Wind turbines can disturb migratory routes for birds and upset sea life offshore. They can also cause interference with radar systems.

Society & Economy

image Direct impacts on the cost of the energy transition are limited as wind turbines are cost competitive in windy settings. However, indirect costs of integrating wind at high shares are not well understood and may increase the cost of the energy transition.

image May improve balance of payments by substituting imported energy by domestic electricity.

GLOBAL MARKET – What is the global market for Wind energy?

Global installed wind capacity at the end of 2011 was around 238 GW, up from 18 GW at the end of the year 2000. Around 41 GW were added in 2011 alone. In recent years, wind centre of growth moved from Europe and North America to Asia, which emerged as the global leader. China became the global leader in terms of total installed capacity in a very short time, overtaking the United States in 2010.[3]

DEFINITION / CONSTRAINTS

DEFINITION - What is Wind energy?

Electricity can be generated by wind turbines at a wide range of scales and using different designs. The dominant concept that emerged during the 1990s is the structurally stiff, 3-bladed rotor, upwind design. This design can be deployed globally at scales ranging from a few kW to several MW. Small turbines can be fixed to buildings or mounted on poles near remote buildings, for example. Large wind farms employ several hundred MW-scale turbines.

Where conditions permit, wind turbines are increasingly sited offshore in view of their visual intrusion and thanks to normally high and relatively constant offshore wind speeds.

CONSTRAINTS - What are the key barriers facing Wind energy deployment?

• For larger turbines it is hard to find sites that offer an acceptable compromise between wind speed, visual intrusion, grid connection cost, and other factors.

• Grid operators are wary of accepting high level shares of wind generation in the absence of means to balance the grid in the event of shortfalls.

• Smaller turbines in low wind settings are rarely economic.

ASSUMPTIONS – WHAT ARE THE ASSUMPTIONS CONSIDERED IN THE CALCULATOR?

Next tables contain the assumptions that have been introduced in the Wind energy model of the calculator.

Capacity factor
2011 2035 2050
0.23 0.25 0.27
Monthly distribution [1]
J F M A M J J A S O N D
0.120 0.093 0.104 0.065 0.065 0.050 0.055 0.050 0.058 0.103 0.112 0.125
Emissions
2011 2035 2050
CO2-eq. emissions [kgCO2-eq./kWhe] 0.0161 0.00903 0.00836
Deposited waste [UBP/kWhe] 1.89 1.06 0.979
Cost
2011 2035 2050
Specific investment [CHF/kWe] 2'008 1'693 1'644

VALUE RANGE - WHAT RANGE OF VALUES CAN I CHOOSE?

MIN Value: 0 GW

MAX Value:

2035 4.5GW The maxumum potential is estimated to be 10 TWh [2], produced by 4.23 GW (Capacity factor = 0.27). This is equivalent to about 185 wind turbine parks with 5 to 10 turbines. These parks would cover 0.54% of the Swiss surface.
2050

REFERENCES

[1] Juvent website (wind turbines in Jura)

[2] Suisse Eole (2012), Potentiels et buts de l’énergie éolienne en Suisse.

[3] International Energy Agency

You could leave a comment if you were logged in.
wind_energy_more.txt · Last modified: 2019/10/22 09:17 (external edit)