Increase primary energy demand.
Increase total electricity consumption.
May increase total fossil fuel consumption if gas fired power plants are added to the grid.
May decrease the share of renewable energy sources in the energy mix.
Likely to raise pressure on the grid by increasing peak electricity demand.
Likely to increase global CO2 emissions.
Avoid emissions of combustion pollutants at the place of use (built area), but not necessarily where the electricity is generated.
Unclear impact on the cost of the energy transition: low cost of heating systems may be outweighed by need for additional grid and power plant capacity.
May worsen balance of payments by increasing fossil imports.
Direct electric heating is the use of resistive elements that convert electricity into heat. This can be in radiators or in under-floor heating.
The use of this technology has been actively incentivised by the Swiss Authorities after the oil crises of 1973 and 1979 in order to increase energy security. The situation is now reversed as policy makers make efforts to try and ban this technology.
• The primary constraint on the deployment of direct electric heating is a matter of efficiency of energy use, as with the same amount of energy input it is possible to provide more heat with a heat pump or other energy sources. It is quite likely that direct electric heating will be banned in many European markets in the mid-term.
Next tables contain the assumptions that have been introduced in the Centralized direct electric heating model of the calculator.
|CO2-eq. emissions [kgCO2-eq./kWhth]||They depend on the electricity production.|
|Deposited waste [UBP/kWhth]|
|Specific investment [CHF2010/kWe]||240|